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J Menopausal Med. 2019 Apr;25(1):41-48. doi: 10.6118/jmm.2019.25.1.41. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Breast Cancer Screening Practice and Associated Factors in Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

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School of Nursing, Tung Wah College, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.



This study examined breast cancer screening (BCS) practices and its associated factors among menopausal and postmenopausal women.


A cross-sectional design was conducted using convenience sampling at a community center. The modified Chinese BCS Belief questionnaire was used to understand BCS practice.


A total of 144 eligible women presented better knowledge and perceptions about breast cancer (mean, 11.46; standard deviation [SD], 3.65) and barriers to achieving mammographic screening (mean, 14.75; SD, 3.70). Participants aged ≥ 50 years had a negative association with the attitudes towards general health check-ups (B = -1.304, standard error [SE] = 0.65, P = 0.046). In this context, having regular physical exercise had a positive association with attitudes towards general health check ups (B = 1.458, SE = 0.06, P = 0.017), and knowledge and perceptions about breast cancer (B = 1.068, SE = 0.62, P = 0.086). Being employed had a positive associated with barriers to achieving mammographic screening (B = 1.823, SE = 0.51, P < 0.001).


The women had better knowledge and perception about breast cancer and fewer barriers to mammographic screening. However, attitudes towards general health check-ups were relatively poor. It is noteworthy that women who aged ≥ 50 years and had insufficient physical exercise had poor attitudes. Those who were employed had fewer barriers, and those who had regular physical exercise had better knowledge on the benefits of the BCS practice. Importantly, women who aged ≥ 50 years and lack physical exercise need education about breast cancer to increase their awareness of breast wellness.


Breast neoplasms; Menopause; Postmenopause; Women's health

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest: This study was supported with fund by Takeda Pharmaceuticals (Hong Kong) Limited. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

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