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Chem Res Toxicol. 2019 May 13. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00047. [Epub ahead of print]

Sucralose-enhanced degradation of electronic cigarette liquids during vaping.

Abstract

Electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids) with sweetener additives such as sucralose - a synthetic chlorinated disaccharide - are popular among some e-cigarette consumers; sucralose can be added either by the manufacturer or by the consumer. The prevalence of sucralose in commercial e-liquids is not known, nor is the typical concentration of sucralose when present: labels are not required to disclose ingredient information. Here, we report the effects of sucralose on e-liquid degradation upon e-cigarette vaping as studied using 1H NMR spectroscopy, ion chromatography (IC), and gas chromatography (GC) coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS) or flame ionization detector (FID). Sucralose was found to be subject to degradation when included in propylene glycol- and glycerol-based e-liquids and vaped; the presence of sucralose in the e-liquids also resulted in altered and enhanced solvent degradation. In particular, production of aldehydes (carbonyls) and hemiacetals (which have implications for health) was enhanced, as demonstrated by 1H NMR. The presence of sucralose in a vaped e-liquid also resulted in production of potentially harmful organochlorine compounds and catalyzed the cyclization of aldehydes with solvents to acetals; the presence of chloride in e-liquid aerosols was confirmed by IC. Quantities of sucralose as low as 0.05 mol% (0.24 wt%) in e-liquids were found to lead to significant production of solvent degradation products.

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