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Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2019 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s10482-019-01271-x. [Epub ahead of print]

Candida spp. and phagocytosis: multiples evasion mechanisms.

Author information

1
Microbiology and Immunology Department, Federal University of Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, Centro, CEP 37130-001, Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. jsdl.oliver@gmail.com.
2
Microbiology and Immunology Department, Federal University of Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, Centro, CEP 37130-001, Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
3
Microbiology and Immunology Department, Federal University of Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, Centro, CEP 37130-001, Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. amandaltdias@gmail.com.

Abstract

Invasive fungal infections are a global health problem, mainly in hospitals, where year by year hundreds of patients die because of these infections. Commensal yeasts may become pathogenic to human beings, affecting mainly immunocompromised patients. During infectious processes, the immune system uses phagocytes to eliminate invader microorganisms. In order to prevent or neutralize phagocyte attacks, pathogenic yeasts can use virulence factors to survive, as well as to colonize and infect the host. In this review, we describe how Candida spp., mainly Candida albicans, interact with phagocytes and use several factors that contribute to immune evasion. Polymorphism, biofilm formation, gene expression and enzyme production mediate distinct functions such as adhesion, invasion, oxidative stress response, proteolysis and escape from phagocytes. Fungal and human cells have similar structures and mechanisms that decrease the number of potential targets for antifungal drugs. Therefore, research on host-pathogen interaction may aid in the discovery of new targets and in the development of new drugs or treatments for these diseases and thus to save lives.

KEYWORDS:

Biofilms; Gene expression; Host–pathogen interactions; Polymorphism; Virulence factors

PMID:
31079344
DOI:
10.1007/s10482-019-01271-x

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