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World J Pediatr. 2019 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s12519-019-00260-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Distal renal tubular acidosis: genetic causes and management.

Author information

1
Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Prof. Alfredo Balena, 190, Room # 281, Belo Horizonte, MG, 30130-100, Brazil.
2
Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
3
Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Prof. Alfredo Balena, 190, Room # 281, Belo Horizonte, MG, 30130-100, Brazil. acssilva@hotmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a kidney tubulopathy that causes a state of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis due to impairment of urine acidification. This review aims to summarize the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis and therapeutic approach of dRTA, with emphasis on genetic causes of dRTA.

DATA SOURCES:

Literature reviews and original research articles from databases, including PubMed and Google Scholar. Manual searching was performed to identify additional studies about dRTA.

RESULTS:

dRTA is characterized as the dysfunction of the distal urinary acidification, leading to metabolic acidosis. In pediatric patients, the most frequent etiology of dRTA is the genetic alteration of genes responsible for the codification of distal tubule channels, whereas, in adult patients, dRTA is more commonly secondary to autoimmune diseases, use of medications and uropathies. Patients with dRTA exhibit failure to thrive and important laboratory alterations, which are used to define the diagnosis. The oral alkali and potassium supplementation can correct the biochemical defects, improve clinical manifestations and avoid nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

dRTA is a multifactorial disease leading to several clinical manifestations. Clinical and laboratory alterations can be corrected by alkali replacement therapy.

KEYWORDS:

Distal tubule physiology; Gene mutations; Metabolic acidosis; Proton pump; Renal tubular acidosis

PMID:
31079338
DOI:
10.1007/s12519-019-00260-4

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