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World J Urol. 2019 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s00345-019-02804-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevalence of distal renal tubular acidosis in patients with calcium phosphate stones.

Author information

1
Urology Department, Son Espases Univeristy Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Jordi_guime@hotmail.com.
2
Urology Department, Son Espases Univeristy Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
3
Balearic Islands Health Research Institute (IdISBA), Son Espases University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
4
Science Department, University Health Science Research Institute (IUNICS), Balearic Islands University, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE:

Distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA) is a metabolic disorder that associates urolithiasis and urinary pH > 6. The prevalence of DRTA in patients with calcium phosphate stones is not well known. The objective is to determine the prevalence of DRTA in patients with calcium phosphate stones and urinary pH above 6 based on the furosemide test.

METHODS:

A total of 54 patients with calcium phosphate stones and urinary pH above 6.0 were submitted to the furosemide test. The association of DRTA with age, sex, type of stone, stone recurrence, stone bilaterality, 24-h urine biochemistry, and adverse effects of the furosemide test were examined.

RESULTS:

The furosemide test indicated that 19 of 54 patients (35.2%) had DRTA. The sex ratio was similar in the two groups (p < 0.776). The DRTA group was significantly younger (p < 0.001), and had a higher prevalence of bilateral stones (p < 0.001), a higher prevalence of recurrent stones (p < 0.04), a lower plasma potassium level (p < 0.001), a higher urinary Ca level (p ≤ 0.05), and a lower urinary citrate level (p < 0.001). None of the patients reported adverse effects from the furosemide test.

CONCLUSIONS:

There was a high prevalence of DTRA in patients with urinary pH above 6 and calcium phosphate stones. Young age, bilateral stones, stone recurrence, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and plasma hypokalemia were associated with DRTA. None of the patients reported adverse effects of the furosemide test.

KEYWORDS:

Calcium phosphate stones; Furosemide test; Prevalence; Renal tubular acidosis

PMID:
31079188
DOI:
10.1007/s00345-019-02804-9

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