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Genomics. 2019 May 9. pii: S0888-7543(19)30079-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.05.003. [Epub ahead of print]

The complete genome sequence and comparative genome analysis of the multi-drug resistant food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus.

Author information

1
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: gnanasekaran@snu.ac.kr.
2
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Institute of Life Science and Resources, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Food Safety and Toxicology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic human pathogen causing food-borne gastrointestinal infections and non-gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The strain B. cereus FORC_013 was isolated from fried eel. Its genome was completely sequenced by PacBio technology, analyzed and compared with other complete genome sequences of Bacillus to elucidate the distinct pathogenic features of the strain isolated in South Korea. Genomic analysis revealed pathogenesis and host immune evasion-associated genes encoding tissue-destructive exoenzymes, and pore-forming toxins. In particular, tissue-destructive (hemolysin BL, nonhaemolytic enterotoxins) and cytolytic proteins (cytolysin) were observed in the genome, which damage the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells of the small intestine causing diarrhea in humans. Capsule biosynthesis gene found in both chromosome and plasmid, which might be responsible for protecting the pathogen from the host cell immune defense system after host cell invasion. Additionally, multidrug resistance operon and efflux pumps were identified in the genome, which play a prominent role in multi-antibiotic resistance. Comparative phylogenetic tree analysis of the strain FORC_013 and other B. cereus strains revealed that the closest strains are ATCC 14579 and B4264. This genome data can be used to identify virulence factors that can be applied for the development of novel biomarkers for the rapid detection of this pathogen in foods.

KEYWORDS:

Bacillus cereus; Complete genome; Food poisoning; Gastroenteritis; Hemolysin; Virulence factors

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