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Med Clin North Am. 2019 Jul;103(4):601-612. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2019.03.003.

Neuroendocrine Networks and Functionality.

Author information

1
VA Connecticut Health Care System, Women's Clinic, Building 2, Room 7-165, 950 Campbell Avenue, New Haven, CT 06516, USA. Electronic address: margaret.altemus@yale.edu.

Abstract

Women undergo developmental and cyclic changes in hormonal exposures that affect brain function and mental health. Some women are more vulnerable to the effects of these hormonal exposures, for reasons that remain to be determined. Evidence to date indicates that anxiety and mood disorders are the most sensitive to hormonal fluctuations in women but there is also growing evidence for a protective effect of female reproductive hormones on schizophrenia. The hormonal exposures of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the postpartum period, lactation, and menopause are quite different and may be associated with at least partially distinct symptom profiles.

KEYWORDS:

Estrogen; Lactation; Menopause; Menstrual cycle; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Puberty

PMID:
31078195
DOI:
10.1016/j.mcna.2019.03.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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