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Arch Oral Biol. 2019 May 3;102:212-217. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.05.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Clinical periodontal status and gingival crevicular fluid cytokine profile among cigarette-smokers, electronic-cigarette users and never-smokers.

Author information

1
Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: dr.munirah.ss@gmail.com.
2
Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
3
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan.
4
Department of Orofacial Pain, Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester, NY, USA.
5
Department of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, NY, USA.
6
Laboratory for Periodontal-, Implant-, Phototherapy (LA-PIP), School of Dental Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA; Department of Periodontology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

There are no studies that have compared the clinical (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL] and number of missing teeth [MT]) and radiographic (marginal bone loss [MBL]) periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of proinflammatory cytokines among cigarette-smokers and individuals using electronic-cigarettes. The aim was to compare the clinical periodontal status and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokine profile among cigarette-smokers (Group-1), electronic-cigarette users (Group-2) and never-smokers (Group-3).

METHODS:

Demographic data including age, gender, duration and reason for smoking and vaping and daily frequency and duration of smoking and vaping was collected using a questionnaire. Clinical (PI, BOP, PD and clinical AL) and radiographic (MBL) periodontal parameters were recorded. The volume of collected GCF was determined and levels of interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were investigated.

RESULTS:

Forty-six cigarette-smokers, 44 electronic-cigarette users and 45 never-smokers were included in groups 1-3, respectively. Mean scores of PI (P < 0.05), PD (P < 0.05) and clinical AL (P < 0.05) were significantly higher among individuals in Group-1 than Group-3. Compared with groups 1 (P < 0.05) and 2 (P < 0.05), BOP was more often manifested among patients in Group-3. Compared with Group-3, MBL was significantly higher in groups 1 (P < 0.01) and 2 (P < 0.01). GCF volume was significantly higher in Group-1 compared with groups 2 and 3. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and MMP-8 were significantly higher in the GCF samples of individuals in Group-1 (P < 0.05) than groups 2 and 3.

CONCLUSION:

Periodontal status is poorer and GCF levels of proinflammatory cytokines are higher in cigarette-smokers compared with electronic-cigarette smokers and never-smokers. However, the probability of increased periodontal inflammation and GCF proinflammatory cytokine levels in electronic-cigarette users than never-smokers cannot be annulled.

KEYWORDS:

Dental plaque index; Electronic cigarettes; Periodontal index; Periodontal pocket; Smoking; Tooth loss

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