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Clin Transplant. 2019 May 11:e13590. doi: 10.1111/ctr.13590. [Epub ahead of print]

Human papillomavirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois.


These guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice update the epidemiology and management of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in organ transplant recipients. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and is associated with cancers of the anogenital region. Increasing evidence suggests an association with head and neck cancers as well. Solid organ transplant recipients have a higher risk of HPV infection than the general population. Infection manifests as premalignant lesions, warts, or cancer of the cervix, penis, vulva, scrotum, and anal canal. Most are asymptomatic initially, so diagnosis can be difficult without screening. A vaccine is available though not effective in preventing all cancer-causing strains. Organ transplant recipients should be screened for HPV-associated cancers and appropriate therapy initiated in a timely manner. Further studies are warranted to delineate the most effective screening methods and therapeutic modalities, including whether changes in immunosuppression are effective in attenuating disease.


anal cancer; anal intraepithelial neoplasia; cervical cancer; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; human papillomavirus; immunocompromised host; papillomaviridae; transplantation; vaccination


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