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Mol Pharm. 2019 May 10. doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00279. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of adjuvant release rate on the immunogenicity of nanoparticle-based vaccines: A case study with a nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine.


Adjuvants are a critical component for vaccines, especially for a poorly-immunogenic antigen, such as nicotine. However, the impact of adjuvant release rate from a vaccine formulation on its immunogenicity has not been well illustrated. In this study, we fabricated a series of hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccines to study the impact of adjuvant release rate on their immunological efficacy. It was found that the nanovaccine with a medium or slow adjuvant release rate induced a significantly higher anti-nicotine antibody titer than that with a fast release rate. Furthermore, the medium and slow adjuvant release rates resulted in a significantly lower brain nicotine concentration than the fast release rate after nicotine challenge. All findings suggest that adjuvant release rate affects the immunological efficacy of nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccines, providing a potential strategy to rationally designing vaccine formulations against psychoactive drugs or even other antigens. The hybrid nanoparticle-base nicotine vaccine with an optimized adjuvant release rate can be a promising next-generation immunotherapeutic candidate against nicotine.

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