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Sci Rep. 2019 May 9;9(1):7162. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43611-x.

Ultra-processed food consumption by Brazilian adolescents in cafeterias and school meals.

Author information

1
Gynecology Discipline, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. priscilla.noll@usp.br.
2
Instituto Federal Goiano - Campus Ceres, Goiás, Brazil. priscilla.noll@usp.br.
3
Instituto Federal Goiano - Campus Ceres, Goiás, Brazil.
4
Faculdade de Medicina do ABC (FMABC), São Paulo, Brazil.
5
Gynecology Discipline, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
6
Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiás, Brazil.

Abstract

This cross-sectional study utilized the National School Health Survey 2015 database to assess the association between school cafeterias; the meals offered by the Brazilian School Food Program (PNAE); and the consumption of industrialized/ultra-processed salty foods, sweets, and soft drinks among Brazilian adolescents. A sample of 102,072 adolescents, aged 11-19 years, who were enrolled in the 9th grade completed the survey. The evaluated outcome was the consumption of industrialized/ultra-processed salty foods, sweets, and soft drinks. A Poisson regression model-based multivariate analysis was performed. The effect measure was the prevalence ratio (PR) with its respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results indicated that Brazilian adolescents who attended schools without meals offered through the PNAE had a higher probability of regularly (≥5 times/week) consuming ultra-processed salty foods [PR = 1.06, CI = 1.01-1.11] and soft drinks [PR = 1.08, CI = 1.03-1.14] compared to those who attended schools that offered PNAE meals. Moreover, the presence of a school cafeteria was associated with a higher probability to consume industrialized/ultra-processed salty foods [PR = 1.05, CI = 1.02-1.08], sweets [PR = 1.09, CI = 1.07-1.11], and soft drinks [PR = 1.10, CI = 1.07-1.13]. School meals appear to be associated with the consumption of ultra-processed foods by Brazilian adolescents, indicating areas for health promotion programs.

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