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J Nutr. 2019 Jul 1;149(7):1238-1244. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz058.

Full-Fat Dairy Food Intake is Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Diabetes Among American Indians with Low Total Dairy Food Intake.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology.
2
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
3
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.
4
Medstar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD.
5
Georgetown and Howard Universities Center for Translational Sciences, Washington, DC.
6
Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Diet plays a key role in development of diabetes, and there has been recent interest in better understanding the association of dairy food intake with diabetes.

OBJECTIVE:

This study examined the associations of full-fat and low-fat dairy food intake with incident diabetes among American Indians-a population with a high burden of diabetes.

METHODS:

The study included participants from the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS), a family-based study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians, free of diabetes at baseline (2001-2003) (n = 1623). Participants were 14-86-y-old at baseline and 60.8% were female. Dairy food intake was assessed using a Block food frequency questionnaire. Incident diabetes was defined using American Diabetes Association criteria. Parametric survival models with a Weibull distribution were used to evaluate the associations of full-fat and low-fat dairy food intake with incident diabetes. Serving sizes were defined as 250 mL for milk and 42.5 g for cheese.

RESULTS:

We identified 277 cases of diabetes during a mean follow-up of 11 y. Reported intake of dairy foods was low [median full-fat dairy food intake: 0.11 serving/1000 kcal; median low-fat dairy food intake: 0.03 serving/1000 kcal]. Participants who reported the highest full-fat dairy food intake had a lower risk of diabetes compared to those who reported the lowest full-fat food dairy intake [HR (95% CI): 0.79 (0.59, 1.06); P-trend = 0.03, comparing extreme tertiles, after adjustment for age, sex, site, physical activity, education, smoking, diet quality, and low-fat dairy food intake]. Low-fat dairy food intake was not associated with diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS:

American Indians who participated in the SHFS reported low dairy food intake. Participants who reported higher full-fat dairy food intake had a lower risk of diabetes than participants who reported lower intake. These findings may be of interest to populations with low dairy food intake.

KEYWORDS:

American Indians; dairy food intake; diabetes; diet; high-fat dairy foods; low-fat dairy foods

PMID:
31070753
DOI:
10.1093/jn/nxz058

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