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J Labelled Comp Radiopharm. 2019 Aug;62(10):656-672. doi: 10.1002/jlcr.3750.

Exendin-4 analogs in insulinoma theranostics.

Author information

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland.
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.


in English, Dutch

Insulinomas, neuroendocrine tumors arising from pancreatic beta cells, often show overexpression of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Therefore, imaging with glucagon-like peptide analog exendin-4 can be used for diagnosis and preoperative localization. This review presents an overview of the development and clinical implementation of exendin-based tracers for nuclear imaging, and the potential use of exendin-4 based tracers for optical imaging and therapeutic applications such as peptide receptor radionuclide therapy or targeted photodynamic therapy.


GLP-1 receptor; exendin-4; insulinoma; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT); positron emission tomography (PET); single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); targeted photodynamic therapy (tPDT); theranostics

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