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Light Sci Appl. 2019 May 1;8:41. doi: 10.1038/s41377-019-0153-y. eCollection 2019.

Generation of multiphoton quantum states on silicon.

Zhang M#1,2, Feng LT#3,4, Zhou ZY3,4, Chen Y3,4, Wu H1,2, Li M1,2, Gao SM1,2, Guo GP3,4, Guo GC3,4, Dai DX1,2, Ren XF3,4.

Author information

1State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Sensing Technologies, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou, 310058 China.
2Ningbo Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, 315100 China.
3Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, CAS, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 China.
4Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information & Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 China.
Contributed equally


Multiphoton quantum states play a critical role in emerging quantum technologies and greatly improve our fundamental understanding of the quantum world. Integrated photonics is well recognized as an attractive technology offering great promise for the generation of photonic quantum states with high-brightness, tunability, stability, and scalability. Herein, we demonstrate the generation of multiphoton quantum states using a single-silicon nanophotonic waveguide. The detected four-photon rate reaches 0.34 Hz even with a low-pump power of 600 μW. This multiphoton quantum state is also qualified with multiphoton quantum interference, as well as quantum state tomography. For the generated four-photon states, the quantum interference visibilities are greater than 95%, and the fidelity is 0.78 ± 0.02. Furthermore, such a multiphoton quantum source is fully compatible with the on-chip processes of quantum manipulation, as well as quantum detection, which is helpful for the realization of large-scale quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs) and shows great potential for research in the area of multiphoton quantum science.


Integrated optics; Quantum optics; Silicon photonics

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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