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Mol Reprod Dev. 2019 May 8. doi: 10.1002/mrd.23166. [Epub ahead of print]

Changes in calcium levels in the endometrium throughout pregnancy and the role of calcium on endometrial gene expression at the time of conceptus implantation in pigs.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Calcium plays an essential role in regulating many cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In spite of its importance in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, changes in calcium levels at the maternal-conceptus interface during pregnancy and its action on endometrial gene expression are not well understood. Thus, we examined changes in calcium levels in the endometrium during pregnancy, calcium deposition at the maternal-conceptus interface during pregnancy, and the role of calcium on the expression of endometrial genes related to conceptus implantation during early pregnancy in pigs. The amounts of endometrial calcium increased during mid- to late pregnancy, and calcium deposition was mainly localized to endometrial and chorionic epithelial cells at the maternal-conceptus interface during pregnancy and conceptus tissues during early pregnancy. The amounts of total recoverable calcium in uterine flushings were greater on Day 12 of pregnancy than Day 12 of the estrous cycle, and estrogen increased absorption of calcium ions by endometrial tissues. Increasing endometrial calcium levels by treatment with A23187, a calcium ionophore, decreased the expression of the estrogen-responsive endometrial genes AKR1B1, ESR1, FGF7, IL1RAP, LPAR3, S100G, SPP1, and STC1 and increased the expression of genes related to prostaglandin synthesis and transport, namely PTGES, PTGS2, and SLCO5A1. These data suggest that calcium ions at the maternal-conceptus interface play a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in pigs by regulating the expression of endometrial genes involved in conceptus implantation, as well as the attachment of endometrial epithelial and conceptus trophectoderm/chorionic epithelial cells during pregnancy.

KEYWORDS:

calcium; endometrium; implantation; pig; pregnancy

PMID:
31066133
DOI:
10.1002/mrd.23166

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