Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2019 Aug;50:82-94. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2019.03.013. Epub 2019 May 4.

Help wanted: helper NLRs and plant immune responses.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
2
ZMBP-Plant Physiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
3
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
4
ZMBP-Plant Physiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: farid.el-kasmi@zmbp.uni-tuebingen.de.
5
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA; Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA; Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA. Electronic address: dangl@email.unc.edu.

Abstract

Plant nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) proteins function as intracellular receptors in response to pathogens and activate effector-triggered immune responses (ETI). The activation of some sensor NLRs (sNLR) by their corresponding pathogen effector is well studied. However, the mechanisms by which the recently defined helper NLRs (hNLR) function to transduce sNLR activation into ETI-associated cell death and disease resistance remains poorly understood. We briefly summarize recent examples of sNLR activation and we then focus on hNLR requirements in sNLR-initiated immune responses. We further discuss how shared sequence homology with fungal self-incompatibility proteins and the mammalian mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase (MLKL) proteins informs a plausible model for the structure and function of an ancient clade of plant hNLRs, called RNLs.

PMID:
31063902
DOI:
10.1016/j.pbi.2019.03.013

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center