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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 May 6. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-05096-z. [Epub ahead of print]

The possible global hazard of cell phone radiation on thyroid cells and hormones: a systematic review of evidences.

Author information

1
Department of Radiologic Technology, Faculty of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
2
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3
Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
4
Clinical Research Development Unit, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Bioinfo2003@gmail.com.
5
Research Center of Thalassemia & Hemoglobinopathy, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Bioinfo2003@gmail.com.
6
Non-Ionizing Radiation Group (NIRG), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Bioinfo2003@gmail.com.
7
Non-Ionizing Radiation Group (NIRG), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.
8
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Allied Health Sciences School, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Abstract

The aim of this review was to investigate the effects of possible harmful waves from either cell phone use or being within the range of the cell phone from 450 to 3800 MHz on the thyroid cells and hormones. Eight electronic datasets were systematically searched using MeSH terms, including "cell phone," "mobile phone," "GSM," "radio frequency," "smartphone," "triiodothyronine," "thyroxin," "thyroid-stimulating hormone," "T3," "T4," "TSH," and "morphological" and all possible combinations, to identify relevant studies published up to Dec 2018. We also manually searched the reference lists of potentially selected studies to identify further relevant publications. About 161 relevant studies were initially found. After screening titles and abstracts, 139 studies were excluded, and finally 22 studies (comprising 7182 cases) were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of the 22 included studies, 11 studies reported changes in T3 and T4 levels (six reported a decrease in T3 levels and one reported increase in it); moreover, five found decreased T4 levels and two studies an increased level. In other 10 studies, TSH alteration was reported. Of these, two studies reported a decrease in TSH level and one reported an increase in the hormone levels, while in the remaining studies non-significant changes were reported. Finally, seven studies examined histological changes in the thyroid gland follicles and showed that the volume of these cells was reduced. Based on the evidence discussed above, the reduction in diameter of thyroid follicles is potentially linked with cell phone radiation. Exposure may negatively influence the iodine uptake in the thyroid gland or increases temperature effect on the thyroid gland. However, further research are needed in order to show that the level of TSH and thyroid hormone suppression by microwave.

KEYWORDS:

Cell phone; Thyroid hormones; Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); Thyroxin; Triiodothyronine

PMID:
31062236
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-019-05096-z

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