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Pediatrics. 2019 Jun;143(6). pii: e20182902. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-2902. Epub 2019 May 6.

School Restroom and Locker Room Restrictions and Sexual Assault Risk Among Transgender Youth.

Author information

Departments of Social and Behavioral Sciences and
The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and.
Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.
Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and.
Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.



Transgender and gender nonbinary adolescents experience high rates of peer victimization, but the prevalence of sexual assault in this population has not been established. Some schools restrict transgender and nonbinary students from using restrooms and locker rooms that match their gender identity, with unknown effects on sexual assault risk. We tested whether these restrictions were associated with the 12-month prevalence of sexual assault victimization.


Survey responses were analyzed from 3673 transgender and nonbinary US adolescents in grades 7 through 12 who participated in the cross-sectional 2017 LGBTQ Teen Study. We estimated the association between school restroom and locker room restrictions and sexual assault, adjusting for potential social and behavioral confounders, using logistic regression. We also tested potential mediators.


The 12-month prevalence of sexual assault was 26.5% among transgender boys, 27.0% among nonbinary youth assigned female at birth, 18.5% among transgender girls, and 17.6% among nonbinary youth assigned male at birth. Youth whose restroom and locker room use was restricted were more likely to experience sexual assault compared with those without restrictions, with risk ratios of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.52) in transgender boys, 1.42 (95% CI: 1.10-1.78) in nonbinary youth assigned female at birth, and 2.49 (95% CI: 1.11-4.28) in transgender girls. Restrictions were not associated with sexual assault among nonbinary youth assigned male at birth.


Pediatricians should be aware that sexual assault is highly prevalent in transgender and nonbinary youth and that restrictive school restroom and locker room policies may be associated with risk.


Conflict of interest statement

POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Mr Murchison participated in survey development and data collection for the LGBTQ Teen Study as an employee of the Human Rights Campaign Foundation; the other authors have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

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