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Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Jun;30(6):335-346. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2019.04.001. Epub 2019 May 3.

Hormetic Effects of Phytochemicals on Health and Longevity.

Author information

1
Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Chang Gung Immunology Consortium, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
2
Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Chang Gung Immunology Consortium, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of the Pacific, Arthur Dugoni School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA.
3
Chang Gung Immunology Consortium, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan; Biochemical Engineering Research Center, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City, Taiwan.
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Liver Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
5
Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Research Center of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
6
Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Laboratory Animal Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
7
Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Chang Gung Immunology Consortium, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan; Biochemical Engineering Research Center, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City, Taiwan; Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Immunology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: jdyoung@mail.cgu.edu.tw.

Abstract

Caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, and exercise activate defensive cellular responses such as autophagy, DNA repair, and the induction of antioxidant enzymes. These processes improve health and longevity by protecting cells and organs against damage, mutations, and reactive oxygen species. Consuming a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and mushrooms can also improve health and longevity. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, polyphenols, and terpenoids found in plants and fungi activate the same cellular processes as caloric restriction, fasting, and exercise. Many of the beneficial effects of fruits and vegetables may thus be due to activation of stress resistance pathways by phytochemicals. A better understanding of the mechanisms of action of phytochemicals may provide important insights to delay aging and prevent chronic diseases.

KEYWORDS:

aging; caloric-restriction mimetics; dietary supplements; hormesis; medicinal mushrooms

PMID:
31060881
DOI:
10.1016/j.tem.2019.04.001

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