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Ginekol Pol. 2019;90(4):228-232. doi: 10.5603/GP.2019.0041.

The early years of life. Are they influenced by our microbiome?

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1st Department and Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wroclaw, Poland.
1st Department and Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wroclaw, Poland.
Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.


Human microbiome contains the genetic pool of bacteria and other microbes such as Achaea, fungi and viruses inhabiting the human body. It holds an immense potential to affect both physiological and pathological processes. The microbiome's composition can be defined in detail by analyzing ribosomal 16S rRNA and metagenomic tests. Recent increases in cesar- ean sections, the use of antibiotics during pregnancy, the increasing amount of prematurely born children and changes in infant nutrition have an impact on the microbiome forming process. A correlation between the bowel microbiome's com- position and the occurrence of certain diseases, especially inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), asthma and type 1 diabetes has been demonstrated. The influence on the development of cognitive functions and behaviour has also been displayed. This correlation justifies attempts to restore the beneficial the composition of the microbiome through the use of probiotics, vaginal microflora transfer in case of cesarean section and encouraging breastfeeding. Development of multiple studies on the topic of the human microbiome and its impact on the human body is necessary in order to reach final conclusions. The aim of this article is to summarize recent findings regarding the development of the human microbiome from the first days of life and the influence of changes in its composition on human health.


atopy; delivery; diet; microbiome; neurodevelopment; newborn; type 1 diabetes

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