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Small. 2019 May 6:e1901105. doi: 10.1002/smll.201901105. [Epub ahead of print]

Multifarious Transit Gates for Programmable Delivery of Bio-functionalized Matters.

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Department of Emerging Materials Science, DGIST, Daegu, 42988, Republic of Korea.
Physical Intelligence Department, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany.


Programmable delivery of biological matter is indispensable for the massive arrays of individual objects in biochemical and biomedical applications. Although a digital manipulation of single cells has been implemented by the integrated circuits of micromagnetophoretic patterns with current wires, the complex fabrication process and multiple current operation steps restrict its practical application for biomolecule arrays. Here, a convenient approach using multifarious transit gates is proposed, for digital manipulation of biofunctionalized microrobotic particles that can pass through the local energy barriers by a time-dependent pulsed magnetic field instead of multiple current wires. The multifarious transit gates including return, delay, and resistance linear gates, as well as dividing, reversed, and rectifying T-junction gates, are investigated theoretically and experimentally for the programmable manipulation of microrobotic particles. The results demonstrate that, a suitable angle of the gating field at a suitable time zone is crucial to implement digital operations at integrated multifarious transit gates along bifurcation paths to trap microrobotic particles in specific apartments, paving the way for flexible on-chip arrays of biomolecules and cells.


biofunctionalization; micromagnets; microrobotic particles; on-chip arrays; programmable gating


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