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Nicotine Tob Res. 2019 May 6. pii: ntz065. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntz065. [Epub ahead of print]

Changes in Use Patterns OVER ONE YEAR Among Smokers and Dual Users of Combustible and electronic cigarettes.

Author information

1
Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention of Wisconsin, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
2
Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco Department of Medicine.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dual use of combustible and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a growing use pattern; more than half of e-cigarette users are dual users. However, little is known regarding the course of dual use; e.g., the likelihood of discontinuation of either combustible or e-cigarettes or both.

METHODS:

Adult daily smokers and dual users (daily smokers who also vaped at least once/week) who did not intend to quit use of either product in the next 30 days participated in a longitudinal, observational study (N=322, 51.2% women, 62.7% white, mean age=42.27 [SD=14.05]). At baseline, participants completed demographics and smoking and vaping history assessments. They also reported daily cigarette and e-cigarette use via timeline follow-back assessment and provided a breath sample for carbon monoxide assay at 4-month intervals for 1 year.

RESULTS:

Of those who completed the Year 1 follow-up, 1.9% baseline smokers and 8.0% dual users achieved biochemically confirmed 7-day point-prevalence abstinence from combustible cigarettes (χ2=4.57, p=.03). Of initial dual users, by 1 year 43.9% were smoking only, 48.8% continued dual use, 5.9% were vaping only, and 1.4% abstained from both products. Among baseline smokers, 92.3% continued as exclusive smokers. Baseline dual users who continued e-cigarette use were more likely to be White and report higher baseline e-cigarette dependence.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this community sample, the majority of dual users transitioned to exclusive smoking. A higher percentage of dual users quit smoking than smokers, but attrition and baseline differences between the groups compromise strong conclusions. Sustained e-cigarette use was related to baseline e-cigarette dependence.

IMPLICATIONS:

This research suggests that dual use of combustible and electronic cigarettes is not a sustained pattern for the majority of dual users, but it is more likely to be a continued pattern if the user is more dependent on e-cigarettes. There was evidence that dual users were more likely to quit smoking than exclusive smokers, but this may be due to factors other than their dual use.

PMID:
31058284
DOI:
10.1093/ntr/ntz065

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