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Int J Prev Med. 2019 Apr 3;10:41. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_80_18. eCollection 2019.

Relationship between Antioxidant Status and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children.

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Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science and Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Isfahan Center of Health Research, National Institute of Health Research, Isfahan, Iran.
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.



Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. In general, diagnoses of ADHD include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Recent studies have reported increased oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, but the results are conflicting. This research aimed to study the relationship between antioxidant status and ADHD in children of 6-13 years old.


From schools, 32 ADHD students whose diseases were diagnosed by child and adolescence psychiatrist based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV index were recruited; moreover, 32 healthy subjects, which according to the medical history questionnaire of psychiatric disorder had not had chronic disease, were selected. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and malondiadehyde (MDA) were measured. General information, health history, and medication history were collected. All participants completed a 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were obtained through this questionnaire.


There was no significant difference between mean of energy intake and Zn, Se, vitamin E, C, and β-carotene as antioxidants between the two groups. The mean of serum TAC, GSH level, and CAT level in the patients were significantly lower than the healthy group (P < 0.001), but the mean of MDA was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.18).


The result of this study indicates that, in ADHD, the serum levels of GSH, CAT, and TAC decrease; the level of antioxidant in the serum has been compromised to fight oxidative stress. More perspective studies with large sample sizes are essential to confirm these findings.


Antioxidant; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; children; oxidative stress

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