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ACS Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 12;5(7):1177-1187. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00033. Epub 2019 May 10.

Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by Candida albicans and Polymicrobial Microorganisms by Nepodin via Hyphal-Growth Suppression.

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School of Chemical Engineering , Yeungnam University , 280 Daehak-Ro , Gyeongsan 38541 , Republic of Korea.
Okinawa Research Center Company, Ltd. , 12-75 Ulumasi , Okinawa 904-2234 , Japan.
Research Institute for Biological Functions , Chubu University , 1200 Matsumoto-cho , Kasugai , Aichi 487-8501 , Japan.


Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast and is responsible for candidiasis. It readily colonizes host tissues and implant devices, and forms biofilms, which play an important role in pathogenesis and drug resistance. In this study, the antibiofilm, antihyphal, and antivirulence activities of nepodin, isolated from Rumex japonicus roots, were investigated against a fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strain and against polymicrobial-microorganism-biofilm formation. Nepodin effectively inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation without affecting its planktonic cell growth. Also, Rumex-root extract and nepodin both inhibited hyphal growth and cell aggregation of C. albicans. Interestingly, nepodin also showed antibiofilm activities against Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii strains and against dual biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus or A. baumannii but not against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Transcriptomic analysis performed by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR showed nepodin repressed the expression of several hypha- and biofilm-related genes (ECE1, HGT10, HWP1, and UME6) and increased the expression of several transport genes (CDR4, CDR11, and TPO2), which supported phenotypic changes. Moreover, nepodin reduced C. albicans virulence in a nematode-infection model and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity against the nematode and an animal cell line. These results demonstrate that nepodin and Rumex-root extract might be useful for controlling C. albicans infections and multispecies biofilms.


; dual biofilms; hyphae; nepodin

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