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Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2019 May 10. pii: S1084-9521(18)30114-9. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.04.005. [Epub ahead of print]

CRISPR mediated genome engineering to develop climate smart rice: Challenges and opportunities.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA. Electronic address: akbiswal@unc.edu.
2
Biotechnology Section, Indian Institute of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, 500030, India. Electronic address: Satendra.KM@icar.gov.in.
3
Biotechnology Section, Indian Institute of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, 500030, India.

Abstract

Rice is a staple food crop, which ensures the calorie requirement of half of the world's population. With the continued increase in population, rice will play a key role in achieving the food security. However, in the constantly shrinking scenario of rice fields, the necessity of these extra grains of rice must be met by reducing the yield loss due to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The adverse effects of climate impact both quality and quantity of rice production. One of the most desirable applications of CRISPR/Cas technology would be to develop climate smart rice crop to sustain and enhance its productivity in the changing environment. In this review, we analyze the desirable phenotypes and responsible genetic factors, which can be utilized to develop tolerance against major abiotic stresses imposed by climate change through genome engineering. The possibility of utilizing the information from wild resources to engineer the corresponding alleles of cultivated rice has been presented. We have also shed light on available resources for generating genome edited rice lines. The CRISPR/Cas mediated genome editing strategies for engineering of novel genes were proposed to create a plant phenotype, which can face the adversities of climate change. Further, challenges of off-targets and undesirable phenotype were discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Abiotic stress; CRISPR/Cas9; Climate change; Donor plasmid; Drought; Flooding and heat stress; Genome editing; Homology arms; Oryza sativa; RGEN; RNA-guided nuclease; gRNA; sgRNA; ssODN

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