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Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 10;677:215-229. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.300. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Characteristics of chemical composition and seasonal variations of PM2.5 in Shijiazhuang, China: Impact of primary emissions and secondary formation.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China.
2
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address: liuzirui@mail.iap.ac.cn.
3
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.
4
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; Plateau Atmosphere and Environment Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225, China.
5
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 10029, China.
6
Weather Modification Office of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, China.
7
Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Testing Center, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China.
8
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Xiamen 361021, China; University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China.

Abstract

North China registers frequent air pollution episodes from high PM2.5 concentrations. Shijiazhuang is located at the intensive industrial zone of this region, but there is insufficient data on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and its sources in this city. In this study, the chemical and seasonal characteristics of PM2.5 in Shijiazhuang were investigated based on 12-h integrated PM2.5 measurements made over eight 1-month periods in each season between June 2014 and April 2016 (486 samples). The eight-season average concentration of PM2.5 was 138.8 μg m-3, and the major chemical components were secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) species of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (41.5%), followed by organic matter (25.9%). The mass concentration and most of the chemical components of PM2.5 showed clear seasonal variation, with a winter-high and summer-low pattern. SO42- and NO3- were the dominant components at each pollution level in summer and autumn (18.1%-30.6% and 14.2%-27.0%, respectively). Sufficient gaseous oxidants (O3) concentrations and suitable meteorology conditions were observed in these two seasons. Highest SOR (0.61), SO42-/EC(10.8) and NOR (0.58), NO3-/EC (5.9) were found in summer and autumn, which indicated intense secondary transformation in these two seasons. Organic matter was the dominant species in winter, which increased from 17.1 μg m-3 for clean days (28.7% of PM2.5) to 169.1 μg m-3 (38.4% of PM2.5). The accumulation of primary emissions (coal combustion and biomass burning) was responsible for the increasing OM trend (especially for POC). The highest and leading proportion of mineral dust occurred in spring (20.3%-46.5%) as a result of higher wind speeds (up to 3 m/s). Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analyses implied that the border areas of Hebei, Henan and Shandong Provinces, together with the central area of Shanxi Province, contributed significantly to the PM2.5 pollution in Shijiazhuang, especially in autumn and winter.

KEYWORDS:

Chemical composition; PM(2.5); Primary emission; Secondary formation

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