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Metabolomics. 2019 May 3;15(5):73. doi: 10.1007/s11306-019-1526-1.

A metabolomics-based approach for the evaluation of off-tree ripening conditions and different postharvest treatments in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana).

Author information

1
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.
2
Center of Tropical Horticultural Studies, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Raya Pajajaran, Bogor, 16144, Indonesia.
3
School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung, Jawa Barat, 40132, Indonesia.
4
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. sastia_putri@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp.
5
School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung, Jawa Barat, 40132, Indonesia. sastia_putri@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Metabolomics is an important tool to support postharvest fruit development and ripening studies. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical fruit with high market value but has short shelf-life during postharvest handling. Several postharvest technologies have been applied to maintain mangosteen fruit quality during storage. However, there is no study to evaluate the metabolite changes that occur in different harvesting and ripening condition. Additionally, the effect of postharvest treatment using a metabolomics approach has never been studied in mangosteen.

OBJECTIVES:

The aims of this study were to evaluate the metabolic changes between different harvesting and ripening condition and to evaluate the effect of postharvest treatment in mangosteen.

METHODS:

Mangosteen ripening stage were collected with several different conditions ("natural on-tree", "random on-tree" and "off-tree"). The metabolite changes were investigated for each ripening condition. Additionally, mangosteen fruit was harvested in stage 2 and was treated with several different treatments (storage at low temperature (LT; 12.3 ± 1.4 °C) and stress inducer treatment (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) in comparison with control treatment (normal temperature storage) and the metabolite changes were monitored over the course of 10 days after treatment. The metabolome data obtained from gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry were analyzed by multivariate analysis, including hierarchical clustering analysis, principal component analysis, and partial to latent squares analysis.

RESULTS:

"On-tree" ripening condition showed the progression of ripening process in accordance with the accumulation of some aroma precursor metabolites in the flesh part and pectin breakdown in the peel part. Interestingly, similar trend was found in the "off-tree" ripening condition although the progression of ripening process observed through color changes occurred much faster compared to "on-tree" ripening. Additionally, low-temperature treatment is shown as the most effective treatment to prolong mangosteen shelf-life among all postharvest treatments tested in this study compared to control treatment. After postharvest treatment, a total of 71 and 65 metabolites were annotated in peel and flesh part of mangosteen, respectively. Several contributed metabolites (xylose, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucuronate, glycine, and rhamnose) were decreased after treatment in the peel part. However, low-temperature treatment did not show any significant differences compared to a room temperature treatment in the flesh part.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings clearly indicate that there is a similar trend of metabolic changes between on-tree and off-tree ripening conditions. Additionally, postharvest treatment directly or indirectly influences many metabolic processes (cell-wall degrading process, sweet-acidic taste quality) during postharvest treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Garcinia mangostana; Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; Mangosteen; Metabolic profiling; Postharvest technology

PMID:
31054000
DOI:
10.1007/s11306-019-1526-1

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