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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00018-019-03100-w. [Epub ahead of print]

The effect and molecular mechanism of statins on the expression of human anti-coagulation genes.

Chang SN1,2,3, Wu CK2, Lai LP2, Chiang FT2,4, Hwang JJ1,2, Tsai CT5,6,7.

Author information

1
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Yun-Lin, Taiwan.
2
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100, Taiwan.
3
College of Medicine, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
4
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
5
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Yun-Lin, Taiwan. cttsai@ntuh.gov.tw.
6
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100, Taiwan. cttsai@ntuh.gov.tw.
7
College of Medicine, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. cttsai@ntuh.gov.tw.

Abstract

Statins are potent lipid-lowering drugs. Large prospective clinical trials have shown the anti-thrombotic effect of statins, e.g., preventing deep vein thrombosis. However, the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of statins in reducing thrombus formation remains to be established. We, thus, conduct this study to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms. The cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were used as the in vitro model. The human protein C gene promoter was cloned into the luciferase reporter to study the transcriptional regulation of human protein C gene. Wistar rats fed with simvastatin (5 mg/kg day) were used as the in vivo model. We found that simvastatin increased the expression of protein C in hepatocytes (361 ± 64% and 313 ± 59% after 2 h and 6 h of stimulation, respectively, both p < 0.01). In the animal study, the serum protein C levels were increased in the simvastatin-treated group (7 ± 2.2 unit/ml vs 23.4 ± 19.3 unit/ml and 23.4 ± 18.2 unit/ml and 1 and 2 weeks of treatment, respectively, both p < 0.05). Regarding the possible molecular mechanism, we found that the level of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) was also increased in both the in vivo and in vitro models. We found that the protein C promoter activity was increased by simvastatin, and this effect was inhibited by HNF1α knockdown and constitutively active Rac1. Therefore, stains may modulate protein C expression through small GTPase Rac 1 and HNF1α.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-coagulation; Gene; HNF 1α; Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase; Protein C; Rac1

PMID:
31053884
DOI:
10.1007/s00018-019-03100-w

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