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Anal Chem. 2019 Jun 4;91(11):7394-7402. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b01284. Epub 2019 May 14.

Accessible Telemedicine Diagnostics with ELISA in a 3D Printed Pipette Tip.

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Department of Chemistry , University of Connecticut , Storrs , Connecticut 06269 , United States.
Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy , Zagazig University , Zakazik , Sharkia 44519 , Egypt.
Department of Pharmacology & Physiology , George Washington University , Washington , D.C. 20037 , United States.
Institute of Material Science , Storrs , Connecticut 06269 , United States.
Department of Surgery and Neag Cancer Center , UConn Health , Farmington , Connecticut 06032 , United States.
School of Chemistry , National University of Ireland at Galway , Galway H91 TK33 , Ireland.


We report herein a novel pipet-based "ELISA in a tip" as a new versatile diagnostic tool featuring better sensitivity, shorter incubation time, accessibility, and low sample and reagent volumes compared to traditional ELISA. Capture and analysis of data by a cell phone facilitates electronic delivery of results to health care providers. Pipette tips were designed and 3D printed as adapters to fit most commercial 50-200 μL pipettes. Capture antibodies (Ab1) are immobilized on the inner walls of the pipet tip, which serves as the assay compartment where samples and reagents are moved in and out by pipetting. Signals are generated using colorimetric or chemiluminescent (CL) reagents and can be quantified using a cell phone, CCD camera, or plate reader. We utilized pipet-tip ELISA to detect four cancer biomarker proteins with detection limits similar to or lower than microplate ELISAs at 25% assay cost and time. Recoveries of these proteins from spiked human serum were 85-115% or better, depending slightly on detection mode. Using CCD camera quantification of CL with femto-luminol reagent gave limits of detection (LOD) as low as 0.5 pg/mL. Patient samples (13) were assayed for 3 biomarker proteins with results well correlated to conventional ELISA and an established microfluidic electrochemical immunoassay.

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