Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Control Release. 2019 Jun 28;304:216-232. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.04.041. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Subchronic toxicity of silica nanoparticles as a function of size and porosity.

Author information

1
Utah Center for Nanomedicine, Nano Institute of Utah, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.
2
Utah Center for Nanomedicine, Nano Institute of Utah, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States; Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.
3
Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.
4
Utah Center for Nanomedicine, Nano Institute of Utah, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States; Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States; Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States. Electronic address: hamid.ghandehari@utah.edu.

Abstract

Despite increasing reports of using silica nanoparticles (SNPs) for controlled drug delivery applications, their long-term toxicity profile following intravenous administration remains unexplored. Herein, we investigated the acute (10-day) and subchronic (60-day and 180-day) toxicity of nonporous SNPs of approximately 50 nm (Stöber SNPs50) and approximately 500 nm in diameter (Stöber SNPs500), and mesoporous SNPs of approximately 500 nm in diameter (MSNPs500) upon single-dose intravenous injection into male and female immune-competent inbred BALB/c mice. The Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) of the particles was determined 10 days post-injection. The MTD of SNPs was administered and toxicity evaluated over 60 and 180 days. Results demonstrate that Stöber SNPs50 exhibit systemic toxicity with MTD of 103 ± 11 mg.kg-1 for female and 100 ± 6 mg.kg-1 for male mice, respectively. Toxicity was alleviated by increasing the size of the particles (Stöber SNPs500). MTD values of 303 ± 4 mg.kg-1 for female and 300 ± 13 mg.kg-1 for male were observed for Stöber SNPs500. Mesoporous SNPs500 showed considerable systemic sex-related toxicity, with MTDs ranging from 40 ± 2 mg.kg-1 to 95 ± 2 mg.kg-1 for male and female mice, respectively. Studies of SNPs showed blood toxicity as a function of physiochemical properties such as significant differences in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC) and platelet number at day 10 and white blood cell count at day 60. Histological examination also showed size-, porosity- and time-dependent tissue toxicity. Stöber SNPs500 caused major toxic effects such as lung thrombosis, cardiac wall fibrosis and calcifications, brain infarctions with necrotizing inflammatory response, infiltrate, retinal injuries with calcification and focal gliosis, renal parenchymal damage and liver lobular inflammation dependent on the dose and time of exposure. However, tissue toxicity and accumulation of SNPs in liver observed at day 10 was greater than at day 60 and much greater than at day 180. In contrast, a dramatic increase in cytokine levels was observed at day 60. Despite the relatively high doses, SNPs did not cause subchronic toxicity at day 180 after single-dose intravenous injection. However, they showed distinct differences in the 60 day in vivo subchronic toxicity and inflammation profile as a function of surface area and size.

KEYWORDS:

Drug delivery; Inflammation; Physiochemical properties; Silica nanoparticles; Subchronic toxicity

PMID:
31047961
PMCID:
PMC6681828
[Available on 2020-06-28]
DOI:
10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.04.041

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center