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J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2019 Dec;41(12):1752-1759. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2019.02.126. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Maternal Area of Residence, Socioeconomic Status, and Risk of Adverse Maternal and Birth Outcomes in Adolescent Mothers.

Author information

1
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
4
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB. Electronic address: mospina@ualberta.ca.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Adolescent pregnancy is a significant public health issue in Canada. Current evidence highlights the individual role of social determinants of health such as maternal residence and socioeconomic status (SES) on teen pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated the joint association between residence/SES and adverse adolescent pregnancy outcomes.

METHODS:

This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of all singleton, live deliveries (2010-2015) from women aged 15 to 19 who were registered in the Alberta Perinatal Health Program. Information on maternal residence and SES was extracted from the Pampalon Material Deprivation Index data set. The study categorized mothers into four risk dyads: rural/high SES, rural/low SES, urban/high SES, and urban/low SES. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of adverse pregnancy outcomes were calculated in logistic regression models (Canadian Task Force Classification II-2).

RESULTS:

A total of 9606 births from adolescent mothers were evaluated. Thirty percent of adolescent mothers were classified as urban/high SES; 27% were urban/low SES; 7% were rural/high SES; and 36% were placed in the rural/low SES category. Compared with urban/high SES mothers, rural/low SES mothers had increased odds of postpartum hemorrhage (OR 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-1.74), operative vaginal delivery (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.18-1.60), Caesarean section (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.19-1.62), large for gestational age infants (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.16-1.66), low birth weight (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.65), and preterm birth (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.17-1.87).

CONCLUSION:

Rural pregnant adolescents of low SES have the highest odds for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Social determinants of health that affect adolescent pregnancies need further examination to identify high-risk subgroups and understand pathways to health disparities in this vulnerable population.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescent; adverse pregnancy outcomes; area of residence; socioeconomic status

PMID:
31047831
DOI:
10.1016/j.jogc.2019.02.126

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