Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Cardiol. 2019 Jul 1;124(1):55-62. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.03.041. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Prognosis and Risk Stratification of Patients With Advanced Heart Failure (from PROBE).

Author information

1
Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Siena, Siena, Italy. Electronic address: matteo.cameli@yahoo.com.
2
Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
3
Department M3, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Targu Mures, Târgu Mureș, Romania.
4
Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
5
Department of Cardiology, Memorial Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract

In recent years, many prognostic scores have been developed for advanced chronic heart failure (CHF), but none of them is comprised of first- and second level echocardiographic indexes. The aim was to create a new prognostic echocardiographic score for patients with advanced CHF. Patients with advanced CHF were analyzed by standard, 3D, and speckle tracking echocardiography and followed prospectively for 2 ± 0.7 years recording major adverse cardiac events (MACE): cardiovascular death, hospitalization for HF, emergency heart transplantation, and left ventricular assist device or intra-aortic balloon pump implantation. A total of 110 patients were enrolled. The best predictors of MACE were selected on the basis of area under the curve by receiver operating characteristic analysis >0.70: left atrial volume index (no MACE vs MACE groups, 51.3 ± 20 ml/m2 vs 67 ± 20 ml/m2, p = 0.0003), right ventricular sphericity index (0.53 ± 0.09 vs 0.61 ± 0.10, p = 0.0002), right ventricular fractional area change (41 ± 9% vs 33 ± 9.5, p <0.0001), free-wall right ventricular longitudinal strain (-20 ± 4.5% vs -16 ± 6%, p = 0.0013). A prognostic score formula was calculated as: PROBE score = 1(if left atrial volume index >65 ml/m2) + 1(if right ventricular sphericity index >0.53) + 0.5(if right ventricular fractional area change <36.5%) + 1(if free-wall right ventricular longitudinal strain >-14%). It presented an area under the curve by receiver operating characteristic analysis of 0.90 and classified patients at low (PROBE ≤1), intermediate (PROBE = 1 to 2), or high (PROBE >2) risk of MACE. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a strong correlation between the event-free survival rate and the 3 groups. In conclusion, the PROBE score, with first- and second level echocardiographic parameters, demonstrated a good predictive value for MACE. It represents a useful tool for a noninvasive, individualized, and accurate evaluation and stratification of prognosis in patients with advanced CHF.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center