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Asian J Androl. 2019 Apr 30. doi: 10.4103/aja.aja_21_19. [Epub ahead of print]

Comprehensive transcriptome analysis based on RNA sequencing identifies critical genes for lipopolysaccharide-induced epididymitis in a rat model.

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Department of Urology, Shanghai Institute of Andrology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200001, China.


Epididymitis is a commonly diagnosed disease associated with male infertility. However, little is known about the molecules that are involved in its development. This study was to identify critical genes associated with lipopolysaccharide-induced epididymitis and analyze the molecular mechanism of epididymitis through RNA sequencing. Experimental epididymitis models were generated by administering male Sprague-Dawley rats' lipopolysaccharide. A total of 1378 differentially expressed genes, including 531 upregulated and 847 downregulated genes, were identified in the epididymitis model rats compared with those in sham-operated rats by RNA sequencing. Functional enrichment analyses suggested that the upregulated genes were markedly enriched in inflammation-related biological processes, as well as in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, complement and coagulation cascades, and in the chemokine signaling pathway. Four downregulated genes (collagen type XXVIII alpha 1 chain [Col28α1], cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 [Cdkl1], phosphoserine phosphatase [Psph], and fatty acid desaturase 2 [Fads2]) and ten upregulated genes (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta [Cebpβ], C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 [Cxcr2], interleukin 11 [Il11], C-C motif chemokine ligand 20 [Ccl20], nuclear factor-kappa-B inhibitor alpha [Nfkbiα], claudin 4 [Cldn4], matrix metallopeptidase 9 [Mmp9], heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 [Hspa8], intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 [Icam1], and Jun) were successfully confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blot demonstrated that CDKL1 was decreased, while MMP9 and NFKBIA were increased in the experimental model group compared with those in the sham-operated group. Our study sheds new light on the understanding of the early response of the epididymis during bacterial epididymitis.


differentially expressed genes; epididymitis; inflammation; lipopolysaccharide

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