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Clin Microbiol Rev. 2019 May 1;32(3). pii: e00103-18. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00103-18. Print 2019 Jun 19.

Microorganisms in the Placenta: Links to Early-Life Inflammation and Neurodevelopment in Children.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
2
Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
3
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
4
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA rfry@unc.edu.

Abstract

SUMMARYPrenatal exposure to various stressors can influence both early and later life childhood health. Microbial infection of the intrauterine environment, specifically within the placenta, has been associated with deleterious birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, as well as adverse neurological outcomes later in life. The relationships among microorganisms in the placenta, placental function, and fetal development are not well understood. Microorganisms have been associated with perinatal inflammatory responses that have the potential for disrupting fetal brain development. Microbial presence has also been associated with epigenetic modifications in the placenta, as well other tissues. Here we review research detailing the presence of microorganisms in the placenta and associations among such microorganisms, placental DNA methylation, perinatal inflammation, and neurodevelopmental outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

DNA methylation; bacteria; inflammation; neurodevelopmental disorders; placenta

PMID:
31043389
PMCID:
PMC6589865
[Available on 2020-05-01]
DOI:
10.1128/CMR.00103-18

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