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Lancet. 2019 May 11;393(10184):1984-2005. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33197-0. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Iran in transition.

Author information

1
Department of Global Health and Population and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Scientific Association for Public Health in Iran, Boston, MA, USA.
2
Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3
Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
4
Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Department of Health Management and Economics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Information, Evidence and Research, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo, Egypt.
5
Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
6
Faculty of Social Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.
7
Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
8
Scientific Association for Public Health in Iran, Boston, MA, USA; Global Alliance for Improving Nutrition, New York, NY, USA.
9
School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Cambridge, MA, USA.
10
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
11
Academy of Medical Sciences of I R Iran, Tehran, Iran.
12
Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
13
Institute for Health and Social Policy, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
14
Cornell Program in Infrastructure Policy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
15
Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Deputy of Research and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
16
Health Services Management Research Center, Iranian Center of Excellence in Health Management, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
17
Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
18
Department of Information, Evidence and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
19
Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.
20
Scientific Association for Public Health in Iran, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Biology, School of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
21
Scientific Association for Public Health in Iran, Boston, MA, USA; Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
22
Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, London, UK.
23
Center for Communicable Diseases Control, Tehran, Iran; Research Center of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Immunology and Infectious diseases, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
24
Department of Economics, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Management and Planning Studies, Tehran, Iran.
25
Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.
26
Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
27
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
28
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
29
Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.
30
Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
31
Scientific Association for Public Health in Iran, Boston, MA, USA; The George Institute for Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
32
Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
33
Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
34
Scientific Association for Public Health in Iran, Boston, MA, USA; Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
35
Department of Global Health and Public Policy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
36
Diabetes Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
37
MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
38
Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
39
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: larijanib@tums.ac.ir.
40
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Community Based Participatory Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
41
Digestive Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Non-Communicable Disease Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran.

Abstract

Being the second-largest country in the Middle East, Iran has a long history of civilisation during which several dynasties have been overthrown and established and health-related structures have been reorganised. Iran has had the replacement of traditional practices with modern medical treatments, emergence of multiple pioneer scientists and physicians with great contributions to the advancement of science, environmental and ecological changes in addition to large-scale natural disasters, epidemics of multiple communicable diseases, and the shift towards non-communicable diseases in recent decades. Given the lessons learnt from political instabilities in the past centuries and the approaches undertaken to overcome health challenges at the time, Iran has emerged as it is today. Iran is now a country with a population exceeding 80 million, mainly inhabiting urban regions, and has an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, malignancies, mental disorders, substance abuse, and road injuries.

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