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Eur J Endocrinol. 2019 Jun 1;180(6):417-427. doi: 10.1530/EJE-19-0082.

Postprandial levels of GLP-1, GIP and glucagon after 2 years of weight loss with a Paleolithic diet: a randomised controlled trial in healthy obese women.

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Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
NNF Center for Basal Metabolic Research and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.


Objective To investigate how weight loss by different diets impacts postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon. Methods In this single-centre, parallel group 2-year trial, 70 healthy postmenopausal obese women were randomised to the Paleolithic diet or a healthy control diet based on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Both diets were without calorie restriction. The primary outcome was the change in fat mass. Here, secondary analyses on GLP-1, GIP and glucagon measured during an OGTT are described. Results In the Paleolithic diet group, mean weight loss compared to baseline was 11% at 6 months and 10% at 24 months. In the control diet group, mean weight loss was 6% after 6 and 24 months (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.049 for the comparison between groups at 6 and 24 months respectively). Compared to baseline, the mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for GLP-1 increased by 34 and 45% after 6 and 24 months in the Paleolithic diet group and increased by 59% after 24 months in the control diet group. The mean iAUC for GIP increased only in the Paleolithic diet group. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucagon increased during the first 6 months in both groups. The fasting glucagon increase correlated with the β-hydroxybutyrate increase. Conclusions Weight loss caused an increase in postprandial GLP-1 levels and a further rise occurred during weight maintenance. Postprandial GIP levels increased only after the Paleolithic diet. Reduced postprandial glucagon suppression may be caused by a catabolic state.

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