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J Family Med Prim Care. 2019 Mar;8(3):1058-1064. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_384_18.

Global epidemiology, risk factors, and histological types of ovarian cancers in Trinidad.

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Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Anatomical Pathology Unit, Faculty of Medical Sciences, San Juan, Trinidad and Tobago.
Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Public Health and Primary Care Unit, Faculty of Medical Sciences, San Juan, Trinidad and Tobago.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MTS Plaza, San Juan, Trinidad and Tobago.



Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women in the world and Trinidad and Tobago is ranked 18th in the world with respect to the rate of occurrence. About 68% cases are diagnosed at a late stage, resulting in low survival rates. Since there is very scanty literature available on the epidemiology of ovarian cancer in the Caribbean region, this study was undertaken to assess the most common risk factors, presenting symptoms and common histological varieties in Trinidad.


A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was designed, and all the 23 diagnosed ovarian cancer cases registered during 2015-2017 were considered. Information on sociodemographics, presenting symptoms, and histological type of cancers were collected after getting the ethical approval. Of the total 23 cases, 17 cases were included in this study after ensuring completeness of data as detailed analysis of patient data was done using Microsoft Excel.


The common risk factors identified were previous pregnancies, previous surgeries, and irregularities in the menstrual cycle. The commonest histological variety was granulosa tumors and the most common associated symptoms were irregular menses and abdominal pain in premenstrual women, and abdominal distention in postmenopausal women.


It would greatly enhance the detection rate if screening and testing for the CA-125 gene were a mandatory practice, for any patient found with more than three risk factors. The public health authorities should identify the modifiable risk factors and implement cancer reduction and health promotion activities to reduce the mortality related to ovarian cancers.


Cross-sectional design histology hormone replacement therapy; ovarian cancer; risk factors; serous carcinoma

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