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Urol Ann. 2019 Apr-Jun;11(2):168-170. doi: 10.4103/UA.UA_124_18.

Practice patterns in ordering a voiding cystourethrogram for pediatric patients among different specialties in a Middle Eastern tertiary care center.

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Division of Urology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.



Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is a very popular test performed to evaluate genitourinary tract anomalies. Nevertheless, this test can be overused and can lead to unnecessary patient discomfort, radiation exposure, and cost. We sought to study the practice patterns in ordering a VCUG in a Middle Eastern tertiary care center.


Over a period of 3 years, a retrospective analysis of all VCUG images done for pediatric patients in a single center was made. Further clinical details were extracted from the electronic health records. The specialty of an ordering physician and the reported indication for the procedure were noted. Indications for VCUG were recorded based on the AAP 2011 guidelines, NICE guidelines 2007, and ACR 2011 guidelines. Based on these criteria, patients were analyzed.


A total of 92 VCUGs were evaluated. Of all VCUGs done, pediatricians ordered the most VCUGs (50/92), followed by pediatric infectious disease (16/92), pediatric nephrology (9/92), pediatric urology (7/92), adult urology (5/92), pediatric surgery (3/92), obstetrician-gynecologist (1/92), and emergency medicine (1/92). Properly indicated VCUGs were 50% by general pediatrics, 55% by pediatric infectious disease, 45% by pediatric nephrology, 40% by adult urology, 33% by pediatric surgery, and 100% by pediatric urology.


VCUG is utilized differently by different specialties. In some centers, adult specialties may order a pediatric VCUG. General pediatricians order VCUG the most with a tendency for misuse in up to 50%. Pediatric urology is not the most ordering specialty of VCUG; however, it utilizes it most appropriately. The noted practice patterns may be improved with awareness of the indications and limitations of the study and with proper referral.


Pediatrics; practice patterns; voiding cystourethrogram

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