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Pain Ther. 2019 Jun;8(1):5-18. doi: 10.1007/s40122-019-0124-2. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review of Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, USA. mjones13@bidmc.harvard.edu.
2
Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
3
Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
4
Department of Anesthesiology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.
5
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
6
Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, USA.
7
Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.
8
Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Abstract

Thoracic outlet syndrome, a group of diverse disorders, is a collection of symptoms in the shoulder and upper extremity area that results in pain, numbness, and tingling. Identification of thoracic outlet syndrome is complex and a thorough clinical examination in addition to appropriate clinical testing can aide in diagnosis. Practitioners must consider the pathology of thoracic outlet syndrome in their differential diagnosis for shoulder and upper extremity pain symptoms so that patients are directed appropriately to timely therapeutic interventions. Patients with a definitive etiology who have failed conservative management are ideal candidates for surgical correction. This manuscript will discuss thoracic outlet syndrome, occurrence, physical presentation, clinical implications, diagnosis, and management.

KEYWORDS:

Brachial plexus; Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome; Subclavian vein; Thoracic outlet syndrome

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