Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 May 21;116(21):10250-10257. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1901274116. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

A nanoelectronics-blood-based diagnostic biomarker for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).

Author information

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697;
Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94304.
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94304.
Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94304;


There is not currently a well-established, if any, biological test to diagnose myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). The molecular aberrations observed in numerous studies of ME/CFS blood cells offer the opportunity to develop a diagnostic assay from blood samples. Here we developed a nanoelectronics assay designed as an ultrasensitive assay capable of directly measuring biomolecular interactions in real time, at low cost, and in a multiplex format. To pursue the goal of developing a reliable biomarker for ME/CFS and to demonstrate the utility of our platform for point-of-care diagnostics, we validated the array by testing patients with moderate to severe ME/CFS patients and healthy controls. The ME/CFS samples' response to the hyperosmotic stressor observed as a unique characteristic of the impedance pattern and dramatically different from the response observed among the control samples. We believe the observed robust impedance modulation difference of the samples in response to hyperosmotic stress can potentially provide us with a unique indicator of ME/CFS. Moreover, using supervised machine learning algorithms, we developed a classifier for ME/CFS patients capable of identifying new patients, required for a robust diagnostic tool.


artificial intelligence; diagnostic biomarker; machine learning; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; nanoelectronics biosensor

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest statement: R.W.D. is Director of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Open Medicine Foundation.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center