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Physiol Meas. 2019 Jun 4;40(5):055004. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/ab1d8f.

Evaluation of one year of frequent dialysis on fluid load and body composition using calf bioimpedance technique.

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Renal Research Institute, 315 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065, United States of America. Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed.



The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased frequency of dialysis (FHD) on change in fluid status and body composition using segmental bioimpedance.


Twelve stable HD patients were switched from 3 times/week to 6 times/week HD (FHD). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass and body mass index (BMI) were measured pre- and post-HD. Calf resistance (R 5) at 5 kHz was measured using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (Hydra 4200). Calf resistivity (ρ  =  R 5 * area/length), normalized resistivity (CNR  =  ρ/BMI) and calf extracellular volume (cECV) were calculated. Fat mass was measured by Futrex body composition analyzers (Futrex 6100, Futrex Tech, Inc.). All measurements were performed at baseline (BL) and monthly for up to one year.


Nine patients completed one year of FHD. Compared to BL, body weight and cECV decreased, and CNR increased significantly by the first month but did not change thereafter. SBP pre-HD decreased significantly by the end of the first month with further reduction until month 12. Additionally, antihypertensive medication decreased significantly from baseline by month 4 and remained stable from month 6 throughout the rest of the study. The post-HD CNR in five of nine patients reached the range of normal (>18.5 10-2 * Ohm * m3 kg-1 for males and  >19.1 10-2 * Ohm * m3 kg-1 for females) after 1 year FHD. In patients who returned to 3 times/week dialysis, CNR decreased significantly in the first week, and this was associated with increases in body weight and SBP.


Reduction of fluid overload with no alteration of body composition was observed in this study. Accordingly, improving fluid status was confirmed by reducing BP and use of antihypertensive drugs together with increase in CNR. Measurement of fluid status by CNR in hemodialysis patients is a new method to quantitatively assess hydration potentially creating a target for volume of fluid removal.


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