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Allergy. 2019 Apr 29. doi: 10.1111/all.13764. [Epub ahead of print]

EAACI position paper: Influence of dietary fatty acids on asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis.

Author information

1
Section of Allergy and Immunology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Children's Hospital Colorado, Colorado.
2
Imperial College, London, UK.
3
Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
4
University Children's Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.
5
Christine Kühne-Center for Allergy Research and Education, Davos, Switzerland.
6
Institute for Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
7
Service de Pharmacologie et d'Immunoanalyse, Laboratoire d'Immuno-Allergie Alimentaire (LIAA), INRA, CEA, Université Paris Saclay, Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France.
8
Transylvania University, Brasov, Romania.
9
Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy.
10
Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e di Comunita, Universita' degli Studi, Milano, Italy.
11
Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland.
12
Institut für Ernährungsmedizin, Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
13
Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, Department of Paediatric Allergy, King's College London, London, UK.
14
Guy's & St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.
15
Center for Tumor- and Immunobiology (ZTI), Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry, Philipps University of Marburg - Medical Faculty, Marburg, Germany.
16
School of Medicine, Section of Allergy and Immunology, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.
17
University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
18
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
19
School of Biological Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
20
Centro di Specializzazione Regionale per lo Studio e la Cura delle Allergie e delle Intolleranze Alimentari presso l'Azienda Ospedaliera, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy.
21
Comparative Medicine, Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
22
Allergy Clinic, Dept. of Skin and Allergy Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital at Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark.
23
Dietary Counseling and Nutrition Therapy Centre, Munich, Germany.
24
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
25
The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, St Mary's Hospital, Newport, UK.
26
NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK.
27
Faculty of Medicine, Clinical and Experimental Sciences and Human Development in Health Academic Units, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
28
School of Medicine, Griffith University, Southport, Australia.
29
Department of Clinical Immunology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
30
APC Microbiome Ireland, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
31
Department of Paediatrics, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
32
Depts of Medicine and Microbiology, APC Microbiome Ireland, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland.

Abstract

The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis has increased dramatically during the last decades, which is associated with altered environmental exposures and lifestyle practices. The purpose of this review was to highlight the potential role for dietary fatty acids, in the prevention and management of these disorders. In addition to their nutritive value, fatty acids have important immunoregulatory effects. Fatty acid-associated biological mechanisms, human epidemiology, and intervention studies are summarized in this review. The influence of genetics and the microbiome on fatty acid metabolism is also discussed. Despite critical gaps in our current knowledge, it is increasingly apparent that dietary intake of fatty acids may influence the development of inflammatory and tolerogenic immune responses. However, the lack of standardized formats (ie, food versus supplement) and standardized doses, and frequently a lack of prestudy serum fatty acid level assessments in clinical studies significantly limit our ability to compare allergy outcomes across studies and to provide clear recommendations at this time. Future studies must address these limitations and individualized medical approaches should consider the inclusion of specific dietary factors for the prevention and management of asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis.

KEYWORDS:

asthma; atopic dermatitis; food allergy; nutrition; rhinitis

PMID:
31032983
DOI:
10.1111/all.13764

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