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J Cell Physiol. 2019 Apr 29. doi: 10.1002/jcp.28740. [Epub ahead of print]

Autophagy, anoikis, ferroptosis, necroptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress: Potential applications in melanoma therapy.

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Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad Branch, University of Shushtar, Khuzestan, Iran.
Department of Anatomy, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran.


Melanoma as the most major skin malignancy has attracted much attention, so far. Although a successful therapeutic strategy requires an accurate understanding of the precise mechanisms for the initiation and progression of the melanoma. Several types of cell death mechanisms have recently been identified along with conventional cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis. Among those mechanisms, necroptosis, anoikis, ferroptosis, and autophagy may be considered to have remarkable modulatory impacts on melanoma. In the present review, we explain the mechanisms of cell death signaling pathways related to autophagy, ferroptosis, anoikis, necroptosis, and reticulum endoplasmic stress in cells and describe how those mechanisms transduce signals in melanoma cells. Meanwhile, we describe how we can modulate those mechanisms to eliminate melanoma.


anoikis; autophagy; ferroptosis; melanoma.; necroptosis


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