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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2019 Mar-Apr;30(2):501-507. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.256857.

Clinical and histopathological profile of lupus nephritis and response to treatment with cyclophosphamide: A single center study.

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Department of Nephrology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Gauhati, Assam, India.


Lupus nephritis (LN) is an immune-complex glomerulonephritis that is usually manifested by proteinuria, active urinary sediment, hypertension, and renal failure. The objective of this study is to study the clinical and histopathological profile of LN and the response to treatment with cyclophosphamide. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care center in Assam, India, where 176 LN patients who underwent renal biopsy were included. The presenting features, laboratory parameters such as proteinuria, hematuria, and the histopathological class of the patients were studied. Among the 176 patients, 89.8% were female and 10.2% were male and maximum patients (61.3%) were in the age group of 20-40 years. Pedal edema was present in 100% of the patients, decreased urine output in 43.7%, malar rash in 38%, joint pain in 42%, hair loss in 63%, hypertension in 41.4%, oral ulcers in 31.8%, seizures in 17%, psychosis in 13%, hematuriain 78.4%, anemia in 72.1%, thrombocytopenia in 51.1%, and leukopenia in 31.7% of patients. The anti-nuclear antibody was positive in all patients and anti-dsDNA was positive in 70.5% of the patients. The most common histopathological type was class IV (50%), followed by class III (17.6%). One hundred and two patients received intravenous cyclophosphamide as initial treatment of whom, 40 received the Eurolupus regimen and 62 received the NIH regimen. The number of patients who underwent remission in both the regimen was compared. The response rate of initial treatment with cyclophosphamide in the Eurolupus group was 62.5% and in the NIH group was 64.5% (P >0.05). Majority of the patients had proliferative LN in this study, of which class IV was the most common. Proliferative LN, if not detected and treated early, leads to poor outcome in terms of patient and renal survival. Hence, patients with systemic lupus erythematosus should be evaluated for kidney involvement and treated accordingly for better outcome.

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