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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2019 Mar-Apr;30(2):470-477. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.256854.

Clinical profile of tuberculosis in patients with chronic kidney disease: A report from an endemic Country.

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Department of Nephrology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.


The objective is to study the clinical profile of tuberculosis (TB) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This is retrospective study of CKD patients who were diagnosed to have TB over a period of seven years at a tertiary care hospital. TB was diagnosed in 115 patients with an incidence of 4200/100,000. Mean age of the patients was 46.9 ± 16 years. Sixty-two patients (53.9%) were male. Causes of CKD were diabetic nephropathy and hypertension in 11.3% each, chronic glomerulonephritis in 31.3%, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis in 39.1%, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and post-renal transplant CKD in 3.5% each. About 68.7% of patients with TB had advanced CKD stage of 4-5D, whereas 31.3% of patients had early CKD stage 1-3. Twenty percent of patients were on dialysis. Three-fourths of the patients had extrapulmonary TB. Pleuropulmonary (41.8%), kidney and urinary tract (20%), and abdomen and lymph node (13% each) were the most common sites for TB. The main clinical presentation of TB was: fever/pyrexia of unknown origin in 24.3%, constitutional symptoms of anorexia, fever, night sweats, and weight loss in 27.8%, abnormal chest radiograph in 31.2%, ascites/peritonitis in 13.9%, pleural effusion in 25.2%, lymphadenopathy in 20%, and sterile pyuria/hematuria/chronic pyelonephritis in 13%. Microbiological and/or histopathological diagnoses were made in 45.2% and in the other 54.8%, diagnosis of TB was made on clinical grounds. Adverse effects of anti-TB drugs were seen in 9.6% of patients. Ninety-three percent completed the treatment and survived. Eight patients (7%), all in CKD stage 5D, died. The incidence of TB was high among CKD stages 4 and 5 and in those receiving dialysis. Extrapulmonary disease such as pleuropulmonary, renal, peritoneal, and lymph node were the common forms of TB.

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