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Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 25;20(8). pii: E2037. doi: 10.3390/ijms20082037.

The Role of ApoE in HCV Infection and Comorbidity.

Author information

1
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 935 Jiaoling Road, Kunming 650118, China. gongyue.1@foxmail.com.
2
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 935 Jiaoling Road, Kunming 650118, China. cun@imbcams.com.cn.

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an RNA virus that can efficiently establish chronic infection in humans. The overlap between the HCV replication cycle and lipid metabolism is considered to be one of the primary means by which HCV efficiently develops chronic infections. In the blood, HCV is complex with lipoproteins to form heterogeneous lipo-viro-particles (LVPs). Furthermore, apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which binds to receptors during lipoprotein transport and regulates lipid metabolism, is localized on the surface of LVPs. ApoE not only participate in the attachment and entry of HCV on the cell surface but also the assembly and release of HCV viral particles from cells. Moreover, in the blood, ApoE can also alter the infectivity of HCV and be used by HCV to escape recognition by the host immune system. In addition, because ApoE can also affect the antioxidant and immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory properties of the host organism, the long-term binding and utilization of host ApoE during chronic HCV infection not only leads to liver lipid metabolic disorders but may also lead to increased morbidity and mortality associated with systemic comorbidities.

KEYWORDS:

HCV-associated comorbidities; apolipoprotein E (ApoE); chronic infection; hepatitis C virus (HCV); immune evasion; lipo-viro-particles (LVPs)

PMID:
31027190
DOI:
10.3390/ijms20082037
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