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World J Clin Cases. 2019 Apr 6;7(7):809-818. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i7.809.

Ultrasound imaging of abdominal sarcoidosis: State of the art.

Author information

1
Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit, Medicine Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, and Department of Medicine and Surgery, University-Hospital of Parma, Parma 43126, Italy. ctana@ao.pr.it.
2
Department of Internistic Ultrasound, "G. D'Annunzio" University of Chieti, Chieti 66100, Italy.
3
Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit, Medicine Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, and Department of Medicine and Surgery, University-Hospital of Parma, Parma 43126, Italy.
4
Department of Imaging and Clinical Sciences, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, "G. D'Annunzio" University of Chieti, Chieti 66100, Italy.
5
Geriatrics Clinic, Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, "G. D'Annunzio" University of Chieti, Chieti 66100, Italy.
6
Medical Clinic, Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, "G. D'Annunzio" University of Chieti, Chieti 66100, Italy.
7
Internal Medicine Unit, Maggiore Hospital of Bologna, Bologna 40133, Italy.
8
Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of W├╝rzburg, Bad Mergentheim D-97980, Germany.

Abstract

Since it has been recognized that sarcoidosis (SA) is not an exclusive disorder of the lungs but can also affect other organs such as the liver and spleen, efforts have been made to define specific imaging criteria for the diagnosis of the single organ involvement, and the concept has been reinforced that the exclusion of alternative causes is important to achieve the correct diagnosis. Ultrasound (US) is a useful tool to evaluate patients with suspected abdominal SA, such as of the liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas and other organs, showing findings such as organomegaly, focal lesions and lymphadenopathy. While the diagnosis of abdominal SA is more predictable in the case of involvement of other organs (e.g., lungs), the problem is more complex in the case of isolated abdominal SA. The recent use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasound elastography has provided additional information about the enhancement patterns and tissue rigidity in abdominal SA. Here we critically review the role of US in abdominal SA, reporting typical findings and limitations of current evidence and by discussing future perspectives of study.

KEYWORDS:

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound; Granulomatous disorders; Liver; Rare diseases; Sarcoid lesions; Sarcoidosis; Spleen; Ultrasound

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict-of-interest statement: No potential conflicts of interest.

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