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Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2019 Mar;26(2):122-130. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2019.03.001.

Inflammation, Immunity, and Oxidative Stress in Hypertension-Partners in Crime?

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC; Division of Kidney Diseases and Hypertension, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC.
2
Department of Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC; Division of Kidney Diseases and Hypertension, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Electronic address: draj@mfa.gwu.edu.

Abstract

Hypertension is considered as the most common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory processes link hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and participate in their pathophysiology. In recent years, there has been an increase in research focused on unraveling the role of inflammation and immune activation in development and maintenance of hypertension. Although inflammation is known to be associated with hypertension, whether inflammation is a cause or effect of hypertension remains to be elucidated. This review describes the recent studies that link inflammation and hypertension and demonstrate the involvement of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction-two of the key processes in the development of hypertension. Etiology of hypertension, including novel immune cell subtypes, cytokines, toll-like receptors, inflammasomes, and gut microbiome, found to be associated with inflammation and hypertension are summarized and discussed. Most recent findings in this field are presented with special emphasis on potential of anti-inflammatory drugs and statins for treatment of hypertension.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-inflammatory drugs; Hypertension; Immune activation; Inflammation; Oxidative stress

PMID:
31023446
DOI:
10.1053/j.ackd.2019.03.001

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