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Int J Stem Cells. 2019 Jul 31;12(2):183-194. doi: 10.15283/ijsc18055.

Regenerative Medicine of the Bile Duct: Beyond the Myth.

Buisson EM1,2,3, Jeong J2,3, Kim HJ2, Choi D1,2,3.

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Department of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Surgery, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.
HY Indang Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Hanyang University, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.


Cholangiopathies are rare diseases of the bile duct with high mortality rates. The current treatment for cholangiopathies is liver transplantation, but there are significant obstacles including a shortage of donors and a high risk of complications. Currently, there is only one available medicine on the market targeting cholangiopathies, and the results have been inadequate in clinical therapy. To overcome these obstacles, many researchers have used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) as a source for cholangiocyte-like cell generation and have incorporated advances in bioprinting to create artificial bile ducts for implantation and transplantation. This has allowed the field to move dramatically forward in studies of biliary regenerative medicine. In this review, the authors provide an overview of cholangiocytes, the organogenesis of the bile duct, cholangiopathies, and the current treatment and advances that have been made that are opening new doors to the study of cholangiopathies.


Biliary regeneration; Bioprinting; Cholangiocytes; Cholangiopathies; Human derived pluripotent stem cells; Stem cell therapy

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