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J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(5):414-424. doi: 10.1007/s12603-019-1163-4.

Effects of 12 Weeks of Essential Amino Acids (EAA)-Based Multi-Ingredient Nutritional Supplementation on Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength, Muscle Power and Fatigue in Healthy Elderly Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Study.

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Giuseppe D'Antona, CRIAMS-Sport Medicine Centre, University of Pavia, Voghera, Italy,



To counteract muscle mass, muscle strength and power loss during aging, and to study age-related change of neuromuscular manifestation of fatigue in relation to nutritional supplementation.


randomized controlled double-blind study.


Twice-daily consumption for 12 weeks of an Essential Amino Acids (EAA)-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement containing EAA, creatine, vitamin D and Muscle Restore Complex®.


38 healthy elderly subjects (8 male, 30 female; age: 68.91±4.60 years; body weight: 69.40±15.58 kg; height: 1.60±0.09 m) were randomized and allocated in supplement (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) group. Mean Measurements: Vitamin D blood level; Appendicular Lean Mass (ALM); Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT); Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC) and Peak Power (PP); myoelectric descriptors of fatigue: Fractal Dimension and Conduction Velocity initial values (FD iv, CV iv), their rates of change (FD slopes, CV slopes) and the Time to perform the Task (TtT). Mean Results: Significant changes were found in SUPP compared to baseline: Vitamin D (+8.73 ng/ml; p<0.001); ALM (+0.34 kg; p<0.001); VAT (-76.25 g; p<0.001); MVC (+0.52 kg; p<0.001); PP (+4.82 W; p<0.001). Between group analysis (SUPP Vs. PLA) showed improvements: vitamin D blood levels (+11,72 ng/ml; p<0.001); Legs FFM (+443.7 g; p<0.05); ALM (+0.53 kg; p<0.05); MVC (+1.38 kg; p<0.05); PP (+9.87 W; p<0.05). No statistical changes were found for FD iv, CV iv, FD and CV slopes and TtT, either compared to baseline or between groups. Significant correlations between mean differences in SUPP group were also found.


The study demonstrates that in healthy elderly subjects an EAA-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplementation of 12 weeks is not effective to change myoelectric manifestation of fatigue and TtT failure but can positively affect muscle mass, muscle strength, muscle power and VAT, counterbalancing more than one year of age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.


Alpha lipoic acid; coenzyme Q10; muscle function; resveratrol; sarcopenia


Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest

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